Rancidity and DOS (Dreaded Orange Spots)
Rancidity eventually results when fatty acids and superfat in soap oxidize (break down) from exposure to heat, light, water, bacteria, or various contaminants. As this oxidation process progresses, smelly chemicals called ketones and aldehydes eventually form. These chemicals are what create the distinctive odor of rancidity.
Rancidity in soap is not a rare issue. Anyone who loftily claims they have never had rancid soap and gets "judgy" toward soapers who have had rancid soap will most likely have to eat their words someday. Rancidity happens to nearly all soap makers at all levels of experience, competence, and ability. It happens to the largest of commercial soap manufacturers and to the smallest of hobby soap makers.
Rancid soap, whether liquid or bar, will smell "off" or musty. Rancid bars may have a wet-feeling, slick surface. The bar may be entirely orange or rust colored or may have just scattered rusty orange blotches and spots. These spots are often called "DOS" or "Dreaded Orange Spots" by soapers.
Ingredients that slow rancidity. There are two groups of additives that are used to retard rancidity in soap --
Chelators. Metallic contamination is the single most important trigger for rancidity in soap. It is nearly impossible to eliminate all metal contamination, no matter how careful you are. It comes from the machinery needed for harvesting and processing natural ingredients, tap water, your utensils, dust and pollution from the air, contamination on your hands, ingredients that naturally contain metallic compounds, and so on. Adding a chelator will immobilize these unavoidable trace metals and prevent them from triggering rancidity. Two common chelators used in small scale soap making are EDTA and citrate.
Antioxidants. Antioxidants are chemicals that oxidize more easily than fats and fatty acids, so they "sacrifice" themselves by oxidizing first so the fats can remain intact. For best results, I recommend adding antioxidants to fats right after purchase, rather than later when you make soap. Fats with unusually short shelf lives (hemp, grapeseed, macadamia, etc.) will especially benefit from this (as well as from refrigeration). An antioxidant can be added to any fat, however. For example, I make a point to add rosemary oleoresin (ROE) to my home-rendered lard and tallow. Another antioxidant used by small scale soap makers is BHT.
If I had to use either a chelator or an antioxidant for soap, I would definitely choose the chelator. My personal experience and my studies of soap chemistry agree -- for most soaps most of the time, trace metals cause rancidity to develop quickly. Those orange freckles of DOS that are the soapers' bane are proof -- each freckle is centered on a tiny, often invisible spot of contamination.
Both additives are more effective than just a chelator, however. When an entire bar turns color and smells stinky, this overall rancidity is most likely not from trace metallic contamination. An antioxidant will be more effective at controlling this type of rancidity. According to experiments described by Kevin Dunn in his book Scientific Soapmaking, EDTA pairs well with the antioxidant rosemary oleoresin (ROE). Citrate is effective when combined with the antioxidant BHT.
Ingredients that accelerate rancidity. Certain ingredients may make soap more prone to becoming rancid. If you have one batch of soap that gets DOS but other similar batches are fine, evaluate what might be the cause. Here are a couple of examples from my and others' experience --
Oxidized essential oils (EOs). Lavender EO that has oxidized due to age can definitely trigger overall rancidity. I suspect older mint EO can also do likewise, but not as fast as oxidized lavender. To prevent this problem, refrigerate EOs if you can, and use EOs within a reasonable time. Use the last drops of older EOs in potpourri, not in soap.
Foods high in copper. Powdered spirulina, a seaweed, is sometimes added to soap to achive a green color. One soaper shared photos of a severe case of rancidity in soap that he had colored deep green with spirulina. Spirulina is high in copper, and copper is a known trigger for soap rancidity. Other foods high in copper include spinach and swiss chard.
Do you have other examples to add to this list? Contact DeeAnna with your suggestions....
Proper handling and storage. Chelators and antioxidants can only do so much to protect against rancidity. Preventing unnecessary contamination is also a wise idea. Here are some suggestions for storing and handling soap and fats. These ideas are based on my and others' personal experience --
Make soap with distilled, deionized, or reverse osmosis water. Avoid tap, spring, or drinking water, because they may contain trace metals that can trigger rancidity.
Wash silicone and other "no line" soap molds carefully to eliminate residues
Keep soap covered whenever practical to protect against dust
Use freshly washed hands or wear gloves when handling soap to minimize contaminants from your skin
Use plastic equipment as much as possible when making soap. If you must use metal utensils (such as a stick blender), choose stainless steel.
Copper is a surefire trigger for rancidity. Avoid equipment made from copper or brass, bronze, and other copper-containing alloys.
Never cure or store soap directly touching any type of metal shelving. If you must use metal shelving, cover it with cloth or plastic to separate the soap from the metal
Store fats in plastic or glass containers, not metal.
Exclude oxygen as much as possible from containers of fats and oils for long term storage. Ideas --
Compress the sides of a plastic container to squeeze out excess air before sealing tightly.
Pour small amounts of fat into smaller containers.
Fill the air space with an inert gas, such as nitrogen. Look for aerosol sprays sold for preserving wine.
Store fats and soap in a cool, dark environment to reduce exposure to light and heat. Fats can also be refrigerated or frozen.
Dealing with rancidity when it happens. There is no way to fix rancidity after it develops -- the best cure is prevention. When the inevitable happens, here are some ways to deal with rancid soap or fat --
The best test for rancidity is your nose, not your eyes. Soap will often smell slightly musty and "off" well before it has obviously started to turn orange.
If bar soap develops a few rancid spots (DOS) here and there, the spots can be cut out and the remaining soap kept for your personal use. (In case someone is wondering -- No, don't even think about selling it or giving it away.)
Rancidity on bar soap is not exactly "contagious." Even so, it is best to store and handle rancid bars separately from good bars. This will prevent any surface contamination from being transferred.
If soap becomes rancid over most or all of the bar, it should be discarded. I doubt it will hurt anyone to bathe with it, but the rancid odor is unpleasant and will linger on the skin.
If liquid soap smells rancid, it is best to discard the soap. Unlike bar soap, you cannot cut out the bad spots.
If fat becomes rancid, either discard it or wash it. Do not soap with rancid fat -- rancid smelling fat makes rancid smelling soap.
Rancid fat can be washed with hot, salty water to remove the smelly ketones and aldehydes. Based on my tests, I cannot promise this washing will remove absolutely every hint of rancid odor, but it is worth a try if you are interested. Here are two similar methods --
Method 1. "...Wash your oil with a brine made of 1 part salt to 10 parts of 180-degree [F / 80C] water. You should have equal parts of water to oil. Stir vigorously until it looks cloudy, then allow it to separate. Pour off the oil with a gravy separator and throw away the brine...." Source...
Method 2. Make a 10% brine solution (1 part salt to 9 parts water). Mix one part of this brine to about three parts oil. Heat to to 160F / 70C. Stir the mixture at 60 revolutions per minute for 1 hour, let the mixture sit quietly for 6 hours, and then separate the brine from the fat. Source: A. Y. Girgis. Production of high quality castile soap from high rancid olive oil. Grasas y Aceites, 54:3 (2003), pg 226-233.
This washing step can be repeated several times if needed. If the odor is still objectionable after two or three washings, the fat is probably not salvageable.
Never discard fat (nor soap batter for that matter) down the drain. Put it in the regular trash or find an alternate use for it.